NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HYDRAULIC RESOURCES

 

 

The National Institute for Hydraulic Resources is the State and Government Institution in charge of  the hydraulic politics elaboration in regard to all  the hydraulic resources of the country,  its application and control.

 

 

 

HISTORICAL REVIEW

 

The National Institute of Hydraulic Resources (INRH) was constituted on June 6 of 1989 through the Law - Nº 114, as the follower of the institutions that preceded, under diverse organizational forms the administration of the hydraulic resources, as well as of the attention to the services of aqueduct and sewerage.

 

A brief review of these antecedents is introduced next:

 

YEAR 1962

 

NATIONAL HYDRAULIC RESOURCES INSTITUTE

§ Provincial  

    Direction.

§ Company of

    Hydraulic

    Equipment.

§ Company of

    Hydraulic

    Constructions.

§ CONACA

§        The bases for the hydraulic work in the revolutionary period are set:

ü      The first national strategy is designed in order to place the hydraulic         resources in function of the economical development of the country.    

ü      An ambitious program of hydraulic constructions is initiated.  

§        Assumes  the attention of the aqueduct and sewage services, incorporating to the new system the Company for the Operation of Aqueducts and Sewerage (CONACA) from the  Ministry for Construction, that was a derivation of the National Commission for Aqueducts and Sewerage, that was constituted as an "official autonomous corporation" in March of 1959 by the Law Nº 168 of the Revolutionary Government in order to attend the administration, operation and maintenance of all the aqueducts and sewerage.

 

 

1969

 

NATIONAL HYDRAULIC GROUP of DAP

 

§ Hydraulic Provincial Groups

§        Assume  the technical direction of the hydraulic development program:

ü      Execute the investigations and projects of hydraulic works.

ü      Execute the systematic investigations (observations of the hydrological  cycle).         

ü      Supervise the constructions that execute the DAP brigades.     

ü      Initiate the organization for the exploitation of the hydraulic works.

CITY PLANNING HYDROLOGY GROUP of DAP.

 

§ Provincial city planning hydrology groups

§        Assume the direction of the activity of aqueducts and sewerage:

ü      Execute the investigations and the projects of the aqueduct, sewerage and 

ü      rain drainage.

ü      Supervise the constructions that execute the DAP brigades.

ü      Execute the operation and maintenance of the systems.

 

 

 

1977

 

 

HYDROECONOMY INSTITUTE of the CONSTRUCTION MINISTRY

 

§ Hydroeconomy  Provincial  Companies

§       Assume, by commission of the Central State Administration, the functions for the execution and control of  the application of the State and Government policies related with the planning and control of the hydraulic resources, as well as the direction of the activity of aqueducts and sewerage that execute the local governments. To these effects:

ü      Proposes and  control the Plan for Water Use.   

ü      Execute the investigations and projects of the hydraulic works and of the aqueduct and sewerage.

ü      Execute systematic investigations (observation of the hydrological cycle) and the water quality control.        

ü      Exercise the function of investor of the hydraulic works  that execute Construction Ministry Companies.         

ü      Execute the exploitation of the hydraulic works: the organization of the  Hydraulic Complexes is being initiated.

ü      Execute most of the wells perforations.  

From the central level exercise the direction of aqueducts and sewerage activities that is been administered by the local governments

 

 

YEAR 1989 JUNE 6

 

NATIONAL HYDRAULIC RESOURCES INSTITUTE

 

The hydraulic activity of the country is reorganized, creating a Central Organism of the State, with the same name that the one founded in 1962, with the following functions:

 

§        Organize and manage, in coordination to the competent organisms, the protection of the terrestrial waters, the basins, the natural beds, the works and hydraulic installations against dangers of contamination, silting and other forms of degradation and deterioration, as well as the systematic control of the waters quality.

§         Determine, with the corresponding organisms,  the necessary regulations for the protection of the economical, social and  environment objectives, from the noxious effects that could cause the terrestrial waters, establishing the actions of organization, assurance and control that guarantee the security and the correct operation of the hydraulic installations,  the works of protection against floods, the underground drainage and the capacity of conduction of the natural or artificial beds.

§         Determine and maintain an actualization of the hydraulic potential of the country, dispose to the competent organisms the data and characterization of the hydrological comparative cycle of the superficial and underground waters, the rain and the evaporation.

§         Propose the strategy of hydraulic development of the country and in correspondence control and regulate the activity of projects and investments of the hydraulic works that are executed.

§         Plan, regulate and control of the hydraulic resources, as well as the operation, technical surveillance and the maintenance of the works and hydraulic installations.

§         Realize the study and evaluation of the hydroenergetic potential and propose with the participation of the corresponding organisms, the strategy of its development, as well as execute the projection, investment, operation and maintenance of the hydroenergetic works of its competence.

§        Regulate and control the  aqueduct, sewerage and rain  drainage activity.

 

 

INSTITUCIONAL EVOLUTION OF THE ACTIVITY OF AQUEDUCTS AND SEWERAGE

 

 

YEAR  1959: JANUARY 1º

 

§ There is not an unique central organism that attend this activity.

§ Participants in this activity are:

- The Commission of National

   Development.      

- The Central Advice of Public

   Services    

- The Ministry of Public Works.    

- The Municipalities.

- The private enterprise

At that moment there were :

-114 urban nuclei with aqueducts operated of the following manner:

        29 by State Organizations,

        32 by Municipalities,

        53 by Private Companies.

- Only 9 towns relied on partial sewerage systems, operated by the Ministry of Public Works, with exception of Manzanillo City that was private owned and the partial of Banes City constructed by the United Fruit Company.

 

YEAR  1959: MARCH 20

 

§ NATIONAL COMMISSION OF AQUEDUCTS AND SEWERAGE

CONACA

- By means of Law Nº 168 of the Revolutionary Government, the National Commission of Aqueduct and SEWERAGE is created, as an  official corporation, with autonomous character and  with its own legal personality. Assume the administration, operation and maintenance of all the aqueducts and sewerage that  have been State constructed or that were constructed for the State.

- It was governed by a Directors Council composed by five persons, designated by the Ministers Council  with the approval of the President  the Republic. The Minister of Public Works is the president of the Directors Council.

- The organization of the Commission was planned for a specialized North American firm, the "Barrintong International Inc." That had carried out a similar work in the Authority of Aqueduct and Sewerage of Puerto Rico.         

- The operation and the maintenance in all national territory was organized in 7 Regional Districts under whose control remained the Units (Aqueducts and Sewerage), under the control of the Operation Division, one of the 8 that conformed the Commission structure.         

 

YEAR 1961

 

§ COMPANY for the OPERATION of AQUEDUCTS AND SEWERAGE of the MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS

- Starting from the National Commission of Aqueduct and Sewerage, that had suffered internal organizational changes, after the abandon of the country of their directing principals,  the Company for the Operation of  Aqueducts and Sewerage is created and is incorporated to the Ministry of Public Works as a company of this ministry.         

- In 1962 a process of decentralization begins towards Regional Establishments.

 

YEAR 1963

 

 

§ CONACA enterprise of the NATIONAL HYDRAULIC RESOURCES INSTITUTE

 

- By resolution of the Revolutionary Government CONACA is passed over to the NATIONAL HYDRAULIC RESOURCES INSTITUTE , that was created in 1962. Been denominated this enterprise CONACA.

 

YEAR 1969

 

§ CITY PLANNING HYDROLOGY GROUP of DAP.

 

-        - Starting from COAS enterprise,  the City Planning Hydrology Group is created as part of the new DAP organism. The Regional Establishments passed to be known as  Provincial Groups of  Fronts of City Hydrology.

 

YEAR 1977

 

§ The administration of the aqueduct and sewerage services is subscribed to the Provincial Government  through the Direction of Communal Services

- With the creation of  Local Organizations of the Popular Government, the activity of aqueducts and sewerage is transferred to  local administration through the Provincial and Municipal Directions of Communal Services.

- At national level the regulation of the activity is assigned to the Hydroeconomy Institute  of the Construction Ministry.

- It is also created the Office of Attention to the Organizations of the Popular Government that in the case of the Directions of Communal Services results be the only level of central attention, to difference of other activities that they had the regulation of a Ministry.

 

YEAR 1989

 

§ The Departments of Aqueduct and Sewerage of the Communal Directions are transformed gradually in provincial Directions of Aqueduct and Sewerage.

- As the National Institute for Hydraulic Resources is created it assumes the  management of  the  activity of Aqueducts and Sewerage.       

- A process for desegregation the activity of the Communal Directions and create the Provincial Directions of Aqueduct and  Sewerage.  This process is concluded in a first stage in 1992.

 

 

HYDRAULIC  INFRASTRUCTURE, HYDROENERGY,  BASINS and  WATER PROTECTION.  AQUEDUCTS and SEWERAGE

 

HYDRAULIC WORKS

 

The infrastructure of installations and hydraulic works that the country has for water supply to all uses, can provide an annual potential of more than 13 600 millions of cubic meters, returning a 67% of this volume to the superficial waters and a 33% to the underground waters. This determines an indicator of available volume of water for inhabitant per year in Cuba of 1 240 m3.

 

 


It is a responsibility of the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources, the operation and maintenance of an important part of this infrastructure, constituted by dams and derivatives, the main channels and some pump  stations - the majority of transfers-; as well as the works of protection against floods of zonal or regional reach, the Institute is not related to the protection of economical specific objectives.

 

From this volume every year is planned to utilize more than 10 000 millions of m3 distributed as follows:  around 70% for irrigation, 20% for population needs and the rest -10%-  for other uses.

 

Dams and  Derivatives

 

The country relies on 1 019 reservoirs, with a total capacity of 9 644 millions of m3.

 

The province with the greatest  reservoir capacity  is Sancti Spíritus, followed  by Camagüey and Granma. However Granma is the province with the biggest  delivery capacity. Camagüey is county province  with the biggest number of dams and derivatives.

 

 

In 226 water reservoirs are gathered the 93% of the national total volume.


Small reservoirs

 

 

In all the national territory there are  796 small reservoirs with a total capacity of 608.5 millions of cubic meters. In  Camagüey province are the mayor number of small reservoirs and also accumulates the mayor reservoir volume.

 

 

Main channels

 

The longitude sum of the main channels of the country is of  778.5 Km. with capacities of water conduction from 0.5 up to 56 m3/ s.

 

Works of protection against floods

 

The country has 124 works of protection against floods in all the national territory, they were built specifically with this objective and are constituted fundamentally by protection dikes that adds 1 278 Km. In order to differentiate with the infrastructure for regulation works, this infrastructure of  protection works against floods is insufficient and at present, the existent require of important work of rehabilitation.

 

Pump stations and transfers

 

In the country there are nine pump stations and transfer operated by the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources, that is the following:

 

No. Station Installed power (kW)
1 Pinillos

200

2 Mampostón

3632

3 Pedroso

4700

4 San Agustín I

3720

5 San Agustín II

6176

6 San Agustín III

5000

7 Abreus

1890

8 The Mogote

3100

9 Sabanalamar

1250

 

 

In these last 10 years an effort has been made in relation to the constructive and electromechanical maintenance of the hydraulic infrastructure, already in 1998 the  16.16 millions of peso was spend,  in 1999 this figure was of 19.6 millions and it has been planned that in the year 2000, it will surpass the 15 millions of peso in this activity.

 

HYDROENERGETIC WORKS

 

The National Institute of Hydraulic Resources has the task of the development, the investments, the operation and the maintenance of the hydroenergetic  installations up to 5 000 kW of installed capacity,  possessing 175 hydroelectric installations with an installed capacity  14 373 kW, classified in the following form:

 

Type

Quantity installed

Connected to national grid

Isolated installations

Installed power (kW)

Microcentral 138 9 129 3033.0
Minicentral 32 12 20 4030.6
Small Central 5 5 -- 7310.0
TOTAL 175 26 149 14373.6

 

 

The 85% of these hydroelectric plants lend services to more than 200 isolated communities in which the national grid is not available, at these communities are electrified 7 117 houses and 503 economical and social objectives.

 

The 15% of these installations, where the 85% of the generation of energy by these hydroelectric is concentrated, are connected to the National Grid and the energy is  marketed with the Electric Union.

 

From the 1 019 reservoirs  that the country has in operation, in 224 are concentrated the major possibilities for hydroenergetic installations, most them has a prefactibility study and have adequate conditions for the construction of Small Hydroelectric Central at the dam and also exist other minor possibilities at the main conduction canals with flows  from 0.5 until 56 m3/ sec.

 

From this total, there are seven Small Hydroelectric Central in different steps of an investment process, with immediate perspectives of execution and other alternatives are studied for the continuity of this program.

 

Basins and Waters Protection

 

Is constituted by a group of activities that  are complemented  between them:

 

Superficial Hydrology, Underground Hydrology, Protection and Water quality  and State Inspection. In order to exercise the responsibilities that corresponds there are similar offices  in each one of the Provincial Direction of Hydraulic Resources.

 

The Hydrologic Service that understands the superficial hydrology as well as the   underground, responds for the following tasks:

Principal tasks that develops the Hydrologic Service:

§   Maintains an actualization of the hydrologic net designs and  looks after the  maintenance and modernization of the net installations and their equipment.

§  Organize,  operates and  control the operation of observation nets at the different  territorial instances, from the administrative instance  to a basin scale.

§ Creates, actualize and exploit the Data Banks and the automated systems of the Hydrological Service.

§ Offers the Hydrological Information Service that governs the water users.

§  Processes and elaborates the information coming from  the nets for their employment in regimen studies and the utilization  works argumentation.

§     Carries out regional studies in order to characterize the temporary space variability of the Hydrological Cycle Elements.

§    Operates the hydrological prevention and prognostic systems in order to avoid and/ or attenuate the damages derived from the pass of extreme phenomenon.

§    Establishes the characteristics of the hydric territorial balance and the quantity of its elements for different time intervals.

§    Proves and  implant the Hydrological Prognostic Systems  in real time for the conditions of the insular tropical.                  

§ Favors technical information  transfer, personnel formation and qualification, as well as the collaboration with other services and similar international  organizations.

§  Maintains a strict control of water  quality  in all the superficial and underground sources.

Water Protection and Quality

Starting from the understanding of the role that the systematic observation has of the water quality and the control of the polluting discharges in connection with the protection of the hydraulic resources, in 1982 the National Net of Observations of the Water Quality was designed,  which has the following objectives:

§        Supervise the situation of the natural terrestrial waters quality.

§        Identify, evaluate and control the discharges of polluting currents, as a way of knowing the causes of quality loss  of the hydro resources  and of determining what actions should undertaken in order to remedy such situation.

This net is has different types of stations:

· basic supervision stations,

· principal supervision stations,

· secondary stations,

· control and surveillance stations,

. others

they are distributed alongside the country and  located keeping in mind the different hydrographic basins  and aquiferous, they allow the evaluation of the natural quality levels, the state of these hydro bodies, their tendencies and along with the inventories of polluting sources, identify the causes of the deterioration of the hydraulic resources, by this way  it is possible to know and control the state of the water quality, in each sample station as well as the basin  level, which  includes the marine intrusion of the coastal aquiferous, the nitrates concentration state in zones for the population supply, the bacteriological quality in these zones, the  saline content of the waters destined to irrigation, the trophic reservoirs state, the content of metals and pesticides.

Actually there are 1997 stations, from which 753 are stations for the supervision of superficial waters and 1 244 for  underground waters. Each year 5 600 samples are taken to which different analysis are made, macrocomponents are systematically determined (HCO3-, SO42-, NO3 -, Ca, Na, Mg, K), electric specific conductivity, pH, temperature, heavy metals, DBO5, DQO, phosphorus, nitrogen cycle and NMP of  total coliform and fecals in 100 ml. the sample frequency  depend of the definite objectives for each station.

The accumulated experience in these nets has allowed to define criterions and establish norms of water quality for several uses as part of the legal instruments  that are provided.

State inspection

The State Inspection is the one that makes worth the dispositions and juridical effective norms concerning the activities in which the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources is the rector  for all the organs, organisms and dependencies and in any activity of the state or private sector, including the ones of its own system, whose functions could affect the state of use, the conservation, the sanitation and the rational use of the superficial and underground waters; as well as the protection of their sources, natural beds and works and hydraulic installations.

The State Inspection system relies on a group of professional  inspectors of university degree with a wide spectra of specialties related  to the hydraulic branch and a numerous corps of eventual inspectors that  support and enrich the professional work.

AQUEDUCTS AND SEWERAGE

Cuba has 11.1 million of inhabitants of which the 75% live in urban zones. These zones have 45  cities of more than 20 000 inhabitants.

Drinkable water

The hydraulic infrastructure for water supply is formed fundamentally by:

· 1 891 places with aqueducts

· 1 743 pump stations in feeding sources

· 16 845.7 Km of piping in nets and main tubes

· 5 desalting plants

· 1 236 chlorine stations

· 1.6 millions of pipe water inlets

The volume water supply  maintains an annually ascent.

 

Water is supplied fundamentally by means of electric pumping of more than 2 670 bombs, consuming 483.6 GWH/ year.

The annual volume increase  of water supplied; as well as the one of the hydraulic infrastructure, has made possible between the years 1995-1999 a growth in the supply of 2.7%.

The water supply services  in Cuba are divided in three types:

§        House Connection . To have water by connection inside the house.

§        Public Service.- Delivery of water by cisterns or public valve.

§        Easy access.- Transporting of water to distances smaller than 300 meter.

Supply covering

 

Year

Total served

Provision type (%)

Million inhabitants %

Houses

Public

Easy  access

1995

10.02

91.1

68.3

6.9

15.9

1996

10.02

92.1

66.8

7.2

18.0

1997

10.04

93.8

70.9

8.2

14.7

1998

10.64

95.5

72.9

6.2

16.4

The supply of drinkable water showed a tendency to increase during last year and was achieved an increase of the population benefited with house connection. Still exists persons without an  adequate access to drinkable water, which are mainly concentrated in the oriental region of the country and particularly in rural zones, continually the mayor efforts will be placed to solve this situation in the next years.

The medium time of service has been incrementing annually, being in these moments of 11.7 hours/ day; there are existing places where the service is continuous the 24 hours, in  another could be in alternate days and even one day of each four, influencing in this situation, the bad technical state of the main pipes, nets and hydrosanitary  installations at the inside of houses that as a whole provokes losses higher than  50% of the pumped water.

Sanitation

Actually 565.9 millions of cubic meters of residual waters are evacuated, of them the 27.2% is being treated, for which there are:

* 5 900.0 Km. from nets and collectors.

* 5 residual waters plant.

* 564 oxidation lagoons.

Also exist 670 000 septic tanks that are cared by 323 specialized trucks and latrines in the rural sector attended  by the users.

There is a modest growth of the sanitation services due to their elevated costs.

Sanitation coverage

 

       Year

Total served Type of service (%)
Inhabitants (millions) % Sewerage Septic tank and  latrine

1995

9.6

87.7

34.2

53.5

1996

9.9

90.4

34.2

56.2

1997

10.1

90.8

36.0

54.8

1998

10.5

94.1

38.2

       56.5

The principal works has been  centered in rural zones, fundamentally by means of solutions with local alternative materials , utilizing septic tanks and latrines. In their majority, this is an experience developed by the Appropriate Center of Sanitation Technologies of Guantánamo (SANITEC), the same has introduced solutions through simplified sewerage in outlying zones of  Guantánamo City.

The solution of sanitary latrines continues being the more extended solution  for rural zones  while  solutions of  simplified sewerage systems are been worked on for urban zones and outlying zones in the case of the big cities.

Water supply and rural sanitation.

The program for access to drinkable water and sanitation in the rural sector have had a significant advance as a consequence of the Rural National Program approved by the Nation Government that searches to achieve in the year 2 000 that all the rural towns greater than 300 inhabitants, have an  adequate access to  drinkable water and to sanitation. This program was reinforced in the provinces with minor cover in the sector.

As a result of the Program of  Water  Supply and Sanitation for the Rural Communities and City Peripheries, it was finished a total of 306 systems in 1999, in correspondence with the objective of concluding in the year 2000  with the execution of the supply systems to all the communities of more than 300 inhabitants.

 

The 306 communities finished in 1999 benefit 107 900 inhabitants. From them, 83 000 is been located at the Turquino Plan with a total of 33 645 inhabitants. Also within the great total is included 26 communities of  Agriculture and Animal Production, in the provinces of Holguín, Granma and Santiago de Cuba. From the 545 terminated communities, 345 has more than 300 inhabitants and the rest has less than this figure.

 

 

FINISHED COMMUNITIES

 

 

   PROVINCE

TOTAL FINISHED

CORRESPONDING TO PLAN TURQUINO

STILL TO BUILT (more than 300 inhabitants)

COMMUNITIES POPULATION BENEFITED COMMUNITIES POPULATION BENEFITED
Pinar del Rio

13

6355

6

2770

101

La Habana

29

16195

-

-

30

Ciudad Habana

1

871

-

-

2

Matanzas

13

4201

-

-

12

Villa Clara

39

17241

1

464

108

Cienfuegos

38

12748

5

912

30

Sancti Spiritus

16

6513

-

-

54

Ciego de Avila

16

6480

-

-

98

Camaguey

32

13608

-

-

89

Las Tunas

47

17887

-

-

127

Holguin

33

80472

-

-

226

Granma

117

39197

16

6087

158

Santiago de Cuba

87

49870

11

9366

109

Guantanamo

48

14851

44

14046

23

Isla de la Juventud

16

4563

-

-

5

Total

545

291052 83

33645

1172

         

                                                

                                                

The quantity of finished communities is increased in relation to the previous year at the provinces of La Habana, Cienfuegos, Camagüey, Las Tunas, Holguín, Granma and Santiago de Cuba. Holguin province stands out by being the one with the mayor quantity of benefited inhabitants.

 

There has been organized the Dispatch Office Rooms  at the Provincial Directions of Aqueduct and also at many municipality level, which represents a guarantee in the actualized information on the water circulation volumes, equipment breakdowns, affectation to the population and other indicators of the aqueduct and sewerage activity, in benefit for the control of the systems operation and of the rapid answers that secure the quality of the service. Actually, there are 12 Provincial Dispatch Office Rooms (still to be created are the ones of La Habana Province and in the Special Municipality of the Island of Youth) and in 76  Municipalities.

 

 

PROJECTIONS UNTIL The YEAR 2002

 

AQUEDUCT and SEWERAGE

 

[     Achieve the access to drinkable water for all the rural towns  of more than 300 inhabitants.

[     Fortify the actions of sanitation and treatment.

[     Promote the improvement of water service  in provincial capitals.

[     Extend and enlarge the participation of the Appropriate  Technology Centers in the Community Programs.

[     Continue the intersectorial at the local level, the qualification and the institutional.

[     Fortify the supervision system of the sector and the divulgation.

 

HYDRAULIC  WORKS

 

[      Work in the construction of the dams: San Juan in Pinar del Rio, La Esperanza in Guantánamo, Cilantro in Granma and Naranjito in Holguín.

[     Work in the maintenance of the hydraulic works.

 

HYDROENERGETIC WORKS

 

[     Execution of seven Small Hydroelectric Centrals, that are now  in the investor process.

[     Continue carrying out prefeasibility studies in the reservoirs with greater possibilities of hydroenergetic use.

[     Foment the construction of Small Hydroelectric Central in those reservoirs that have adequate conditions.

[     Search of alternatives for the continuity of this program, by means of possible agreements with foreign associations.